The 12 centuries of Ancient Roman civilisation were defined by a religion which developed from a local, pantheistic animism and was incorporated into the early institutions in the city.
As the Empire and the Republic advanced, the Roman religion adopted the Greek pantheon and took on Emperor worship before eventually embracing Christianity in the final years of the Empire’s rule.
Much like many pagan faiths, success in life was only possible through having a good relationship with the gods.
The Deities of Rome
In Roman mythology, the gods fulfilled a variety of functions which corresponded with the different aspects of life such as love, marriage, birth, death, war, and argiculture.
Many of the gods were in Latium – the region of Italy where Rome was founded – and some of them were of Italic, Etruscan, and Sabine descent. In Roman mythology, the immortal gods listed below ruled the Earth, the heavens, and the underworld.
Known as the ‘Father of Gods and men’, Jupiter is the god of sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, and justice.
Known as the ‘Queen of the Gods’, Juno was the goddess of women and marriage and was married to Jupiter.
Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter and was born fully-grown from his forehead, already wearing battle armour.
She is the goddess of poetry, wisdom, art, and the strategy of war.
Mercury, who surely would be a fan of your favourite online gambling casino, is the god of profit, eloquence, communication, and travel.
He is also the guide of dead souls to the underworld and the son of Maia and Jupiter.
The patron of wine, Venus is the Mother of the Roman people and the goddess of love, beauty, sex, fertility, desire, and prosperity.
Mars is the god of war, the guardian of agriculture, the embodiment of virility and aggression and the father of Romulus – the founder of Rome – and is the son of Juno.
Son of Jupiter and Latona, Apollo is the twin of Diana, and the god of music, healing, light, and truth.
Apollo is also one of the few Roman gods who retained the same name as his Greek counterpart.
Goddess of the hunt, the moon, and birth, Diana is the twin sister of Apollo and daughter of Jupiter and Latona.
Neptune is often depicted with his trident and is the brother of Jupiter, Pluto, and Juno and is the god of freshwater and the oceans, earthquakes, hurricanes, and horses.
Vulcan is the maker of the weapons used by the gods and is the god of fire, metalwork, the forge, and volcanoes.
Vesta was the daughter of Saturn and Ops and the goddess of home, hearth, and family.
She is also the sacred fire of the Vestal Virgins, Rome’s only full-time, all female priesthood.
Ceres is the Eternal Mother and the daughter of Saturn and Ops.
She is the goddess of agriculture, grain, women, motherhood, and marriage and was also the lawgiver.